Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Moral and learning development in children Essay

Moral and learning development in children - Essay Example According to Piaget, the moral makeup of a child is a product of his/her own conception and understanding of the world. This view is contrary to the conventional view that children are taught what is right and wrong by parents and teachers. While moral preaching inevitably goes on, children made moral judgments based on their own observations of their environment. Further, morality is a product of interaction with peers and authority figures do not influence it much. Key moral concepts like fairness, equality, justice and mutual reciprocity were all largely constructed through their interactions with other children. Moreover, as per Piaget’s definition of morality, contemporaneous social norms do not matter much to children, but instead morality comprises of universal, generic principles. Of course, while these tendencies are evident during early childhood, the nature of moral development matures and becomes more sophisticated as they grow up. Lawrence Kohlberg’s work m odifies and refines several of Piaget’s theses. Kohlberg noted that the moral evolution of children is a lot more gradual and complex than what Piaget had proposed. Kohlberg identified a total of six stages of moral development, grouped under three major levels. Each of these levels represents a fundamental shift in the social-moral understanding of the individual.

Saturday, February 8, 2020


COUNTER CULTURE, COUNTER MEMORY AND PARTICIPATION - Essay Example At some point in the 1970s, global economic depression destroyed the illusion of post-World-War-II prosperity and the idea of a ‘post-scarcity society’ (Kellner 1995, 3) was substituted by discourses demanding rationalising expectations, restrictions to growth, and the inevitability of economic and state reform (Kellner 1995); such reform occurred in most regions of the capitalist world throughout the 1980s under the command of conventional regimes which curtail social welfare agendas, while strengthening the military sector and adding to national deficits, with enormous debts that remain unpaid (Jameson 1991). The past decades have also witnessed the downfall of Soviet communism and the culmination of the Cold War (Sebestyen 2009). Communist and capitalist countries, after World War II, begin vying for political, economic, and cultural supremacy. Forces in both leagues provoked hot and cold armed conflicts, leading to intense militarisation and overt and covert hostilities between replacements of the superpowers (Katz 2000). Outrageous military organisations on both blocs and weapons of mass destruction generated an edgy, fearful age, where fanatic and suspicious bureaucrats could pressure citizens into recognising social policies that mostly benefited and profited the powerful and greedy, while delaying major social reform and the construction of a more fair and reasonable social order (Sebestyen 2009). Innovative technologies have also appeared in the recent decades which have altered the orders of everyday life and impressively reorganised work and leisure (Klein 2001). These new globalised infrastructures and networks also offer effective types of social control through more effective, ingeniously hidden strategies of propaganda and manipulation (Klein 2001). Definitely, their very presence might weaken political forces and keep individuals securely installed within

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Socio-Economic Consequences of Ecotourism Essay Example for Free

Socio-Economic Consequences of Ecotourism Essay Discuss the environmental and socio-economic consequences of ecotourism. What additional factors need to be considered in establishing ecotourism projects? Ecotourism aims to protect landscapes and wildlife, promoting also financial benefits to the local communities. According to Chaynee (2010), in Malaysia, ecotourism is the second largest source of Gross Domestic Product. It provides job opportunities and stimulates voyagers to show respect for the conservation of the environment. There are numerous positive and negative effects of ecotourism, and as a result, there is the need to apply additional actions to minimize the unbalanced outcomes. This essay will discuss the environmental consequences of ecotourism, such as, the conservation and deterioration of the surrounding areas. Secondly, it will analyse the socio-economic effects; finally the essay will suggest some factors for future ecotourism projects. The implementation of ecotourism has positive environmental consequences. Firstly, ecotourism allows the discovery of new places and the improvement on territory conservation. In her case study, Nikitina (2007) shows that in Russia, ecotourism has been showing off the natural areas, which during the Soviet Period were strictly protected. She also points out that the populations have more appreciation of the nature. What this means is that ecotourism may be seen as an environmental education program. Ecotourists are interested to respect rules and acquire knowledge about nature; consequentially, local communities may look at tourists as a correct model to imitate (Chaynee 2010; Waylen et al. 2009). Furthermore, according to Chaynee (2010), there is a positive impact on the attitude of local people towards conservation of their own culture. Being ecotourists interested to learn, local communities are incited to protect the cultural property value such as rituals, ceremonies, arts and crafts. However, besides protecting natural sites, ecotourism may also be the indirect reason of negative environmental consequences. This view is commonly shared; as Hueter in Jaffe (2009: 1) states, â€Å"There comes a time when you have so much interference through ecotourism that you affect the thing you’re trying to protect†. The reason for this could be that as ecotourism is becoming a phenomenon widely promoted, the large number of ecotourists attracted, may cause a higher rate of pollution and an increased deterioration of the environment. The island of Damas shows how over-crowing of tourists influences the natural behaviour of wildlife; penguins in contact with people may abandon their own natural habitats (Ellenberg in Jeff 2009). In addition, in Tortoguero, the significant amount of rubbish left by tourist harms the habitat of the animals (Meletis in Jeff 2009). Furthermore, according to York (2005), the establishment of tourist accommodations and the need of firewood have caused water contamination and deforestation. In conclusion, environment and wildlife are often victims of the ecotourism activities. Furthermore, ecotourism produces consequences in the socio-economic status of the local community, as the creation of new businesses increases job opportunities and improves the economy. For example, it involves host communities in the tourist industry, such as restaurants, accommodation, and local tours. In addition, in Zapovednik, a natural area in Russia, extra financial helps often occur by visitors for supporting the population (Nikitina 2007). On the other hand, it needs to be underlined that socio-economic consequences can also be negatives. A study to find out the effects of ecotourism on the Masai population claims that â€Å"The Masai have faced eviction from tribal lands, economic dislocation, assaults on traditional values, and environmental degradation† (York 2005: 2). For the local community, forests were the main source of income, allowing them to practice farming and other activities. However, since wildwood has become protected for the landscape conservation or destroyed for lodge constructions, the Masai are unable to use the natural resources for practicing their own businesses. In addition, in these places, industries duplicate traditional homemade products and sell these at a cheaper price; as a result the local economy is compromised (York 2005). Secondly, he believes that the prices of products and services have increased as an economic result of the turnout of a wide number of tourists. Indeed, in the Philippines, many people migrate due to the higher cost of living. Furthermore, a lack of water emerges due to the growing demand, both from the tourist facilities and local families (ibid). In conclusion, the drawbacks for the local people are various. Almost all of the above outcomes, both environmental and socio-economic, may be improved by applying corrective actions when considering future projects. Firstly, according to Libosada (2009) ecotourism should be managed like as a business and seen as a networked industry: tourist agents should work on tour promotions, the host communities provide accommodation, and the government should fix rules within the ecotourism business. In fact, a successful model for the development of ecotourism requires the participation of all of the subjects involved. In addition, by developing an accurate framework become possible resolving the conflict of interest between them, planning the use of resources and also auditing the results during the implementation of the project. Furthermore, in order to avoid some negative effects of mass tourism, Libosada (2009) suggests to identify the physical limits of the local area, in relation to carrying capacity of tourists, and use these limitations to plan future strategies; this is known as the LAC concept. Another example of how minimize the environmental deteriorations is the creation of buffer zones close to the core-protected areas. In these are promoted all the tourist activities in order to attract people and leave the protected sites intact (Nikitina 2007). Finally, in order to prevent the migration of local people, Jaffe (2009) points out that an agreement should ensure that they are employed in the village activities, so that money remains in the economy of the local area. This essay has discussed the wide impact of ecotourism on the environment, and how it may affects the socio-economic status of the communities. The several drawbacks may be minimized with the adoption of an accurate framework as guideline, the creation of buffer zones and the identification of physical limits of the ecotourism hosting areas. These actions may be fundamentals for the establishment of future ecotourism projects. Therefore, co-operation between government, local people and tourist industry is the key tool. If all the potential beneficiaries of the projects work together for the same targets, ecotourism will be more profitable and successful. List of References Chaynee, W. (2010). Benefits of Ecotourism for Local Communities. Available at: http://www.mier.org. [Accessed 22/05/10]. Jaffe, E. (2009). Science News.  © 2009 Science Service, Inc. 170(14). Libosada Jr. C.M. (2009). Ocean Coastal Management, 52, 390–394. Available at: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ocecoaman. [Accessed 15 Nov 2012]. Nikitina, E (2007) Ecotourism: an Opportunity for Sustainable Development Available at http://www.russianconservation.org [Accessed 19/05/09]. Waylen, K.A., McGowan,P.J.K., Pawi Study Group and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009). Ecotourism positively affects awareness and attitudes but not conservation behaviours: a case study at Grande Riviere, Trinidad. Fauna Flora International Oryx. 43(3), 343–351 Available at: http://journals.cambridge.org [Accessed 28/05/10]. York, S. (2005) Eco-Tourism Can Be Both a Boon and a Curse for Indigenous Peoples. Available at: http://commongroundmag.com. [Accessed 16/05/06].

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Thrasymachus Perspective on Human Nature Essay -- Thrasymachus Morali

Thrasymachus' Perspective on Human Nature Thrasymachus' perspective of human nature is that we all seek to maximize power, profit and possessions. He gives the argument that morality is not an objective truth but rather a creation of the stronger (ruling) party to serve its own advantage. Therefore definitions of "just" and "unjust", "right" and "wrong", "moral" and "immoral" are all dependent upon the decree of the ruling party. Thrasymachus argues that acting "morally", in accordance with the ruling party, benefits the ruling party, while acting "immorally", injures the ruling party and benefits oneself. Thrasymachus perceives human nature as our ruthless drive toward superiority. He believes that unless we are foolish "moral simpletons," we will act according to what is best for us, namely living immorally on a quest to becoming ruler of the world. He believes that our human nature has no qualms about committing immoral actions. In describing human nature Thrasymachus says, "immorality has a bad name because people are afraid of being at the receiving end of it, not of doing it." (Republic 344c) When we finally reach the goal, the ideal of human nature, we will be able to practice "immorality in its most perfect form," stealing "what doesn't belong to [us] - consecrated and unconsecrated objects, private possessions, and public property - and [we do] so not on a small scale, but comprehensively." (Republic 344a-b) Thrasymachus makes the assumption that we are all driven to acquiring as much power, profit and possessions as possible. His argument for living immorally rests on the assumption that our human nature's burning desire is for more of the three p's (power, profit and possessions), and that there is more ... ...ity is created by those in power, and thus, there is no absolute true morality, he concludes that the best way to satisfy his human desire is to acquire as much power as possible, and take from others as much as he can. Because his view of morality is not fixed but created by those in power, he defines words like "moral", "just", and "right" based on one's compliance with the rules of the ruling party. He claims that acting "morally" serves the ruling party because the ruling party designed the legal structure for its own benefit. Socrates raises some criticisms, especially the criticism showing that people behaving immorally would not be able to act in concert with others and would fall out with others, which are compelling and discredit Thrasymachus' position. From this it is conclusive that Thrasymachus has not entirely captured the essence of human nature.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Lucy Gault

In the novel, The Story of Lucy Gault, chance plays a tremendous role. There are numerous examples of this. From the very beginning, the fact that Lucy goes for a swim, and then gets hurt on her way back through the woods, starts the plot. With her not returning home, and the chance happening that her clothes were not all washed out to see, her parents left the country with out her, a critical point, never to see her again. If they had not found any of her clothes, or her sandal, they may have continued to look for her in the countryside.At this same time, the fact that Henry happened upon her under the black coat at Patty Lindon’s old place was another chance happening. And what if Henry had not needed the stones to repair the O’Reilly’s sheep fence, the reason he went to Liindon’s. Lucy survived and the story continues. And what about the first visit by Ralph – he got lost, came up a strange road that to him did not look like an avenue, did not ex pect to find a house, and it happened to be Lahardane, and by chance, once again Lucy was home and came out of the house. These suggest the hand of fate during not only Lucy’s life, but that of her parents and Ralph as well.The tragic consequences of Lucy’s mother and father finding her clothes along the shore prove to them that she had drowned, lost at sea while swimming alone. Convinced of this, they stop looking for Lucy and decide to continue with their plans to leave Ireland without her. They never look back. They move to England, and then continue to move from place to place, never contacting anyone at Lahardane with their updated location. Thus no one was able to let them know that their daughter had survived and was growing up without them. And likewise, they not seeing her mature.When Lucy first disappeared, Bridget confirmed that she had seen Lucy come home in prior nights with damp hair, proof that she had been swimming alone. They could not get past this fa ct of dishonesty. They had called her name in the woods to no avail. They blamed themselves, and seeing her clothes, and just one sandal, meant that she had drowned. As nothing was seen by the fisherman, it could only remain the sharks. There was no other answer. Misinterpretation plays a major role in this novel, and in everyone’s lives. Communication of all forms is vital.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Abortion Controversy Essay - 1423 Words

The controversy within the biomedical ethics topic, abortion, has two main proponents. The first is the view against abortion, also known as pro-life. The other view is rooted upon the belief of being pro-choice, or basically for abortions. These two different views are like two mathematical principles, in that although these two views have many differences, they also have larger similarities in the background. For example, when pro-choice activists support abortions due to unwanted pregnancies, the activists are not rallying behind the idea of sexual incompetency (pregnancies due to lack of birth control). Rather, they are supporting the idea that women have the right to choose what to do with their own bodies. In order to understand†¦show more content†¦They believe that through love, and guidance anyone with any form of deformity or disease, can lead a normal life. The cases pertaining to rape also have different anti-abortionists views. Many anti-abortionists believe tha t the child can actually help the mother get through the turbulent times in her life, by providing each other with a loving environment. Finally, in the case of economics, the pro-life activists believe that having an abortion due to financial reasons is ridiculous. Because, it doesn’t mean that the child will have a life full of isolation and depression. The pro-life activists argue that there are also numerous welfare programs for such families. However, the pro-choice or the activists for abortions, argue that if a family is in a state of financial trouble, then abortion should be a practical option. Otherwise, the child would be born into a life of suffering, and inadequate living conditions. The pro-choice believers, bases their beliefs, upon the fact that having an abortion is the inalienable right of women. They believe that by outlawing abortions, women aren’t allowed to practice their freedom of privacy. In a way, women are being denied their constitutional rights. Many pro-choice activists also state that abortion is justifiable, because at the time of fertilization the ensuing embryo is not yet a human being. It is not a human being, but a potential one. Therefore, its death does not constitute a murder. Pro-choice activists’Show MoreRelatedThe Abortion Controversy1006 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Abortion Controversy† Many outsiders see the United States as a place of peace and harmony. But for those who live within it, know that it is the complete opposite. The United States has numerous amounts of worldwide problems from the economy to obesity to even pollution. Although some are more important than others doesn’t mean the small issues should go unnoticed. Abortion, the termination of pregnancy is considered a problem by many but also reflected as nonfactorRead MoreLegalization of Abortion: A Controversy2153 Words   |  9 PagesAbortion Should abortion be legalized? 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